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The CEO Point of View

The No-Longer-Hypothetical Case for Jumping on the Cloud
By N. Chandrasekaran, CEO and Managing Director, Tata Consultancy Services


Tata Consultancy Services has watched with great interest the ongoing development of cloud computing. We have advocated the opportunities in multiple Innovation Forums and through different media since 2004. We have sought out the best practices in using this new technology by bringing our clients, venture capital firms, startup companies, professors, industry analysts and other technology companies together to talk about the implications of this on major business and technology issues of the day.

We see cloud computing as an ecosystem play – an opportunity that requires us to work deeply with a range of entities from academia and start-ups to corporations, and technology providers –to bring world-class solutions to market. Cloud has become a key focus of our Co-Innovation Network (or COIN), which is our mechanism for collaborating with these entities.

We have invested in building capabilities of our engineers to create a suite of cloud-based solutions to help our clients capitalize on the cloud. We have been redesigning their business processes and shifting on-premises applications to the cloud; developing, testing and maintaining whole new applications for the cloud; and in some cases hosting and supporting their cloud applications.

We have developed new business models using the cloud paradigm. One year ago TCS launched iON, a cloud-based holistic IT offering for small and medium-sized businesses in India – services that can give the country’s 35 million SMBs enterprise-quality IT services on a pay-as-you-grow model. This requires no capital investments in technology and eliminates technology redundancy, thereby addressing two key concerns for capital-constrained SMBs.

We have used the cloud platform to drive financial inclusion in India and aided the expansion of rural banking services by offering the latest core banking solution engines that run on the cloud. And we have created special cloud offerings for insurance companies and banks, as well as offerings that provide certain business processes from the cloud.

There is no question that we are excited about its potential to be all over the cloud. But last fall, the question for us about the cloud was this: Does the world of large enterprises view cloud computing the same way? Are they as bullish on the cloud as we are? Are they making big bets on the cloud too?

As a result, we decided to conduct a major study to understand the expectations and the potential of this new paradigm in computing. We fielded an extensive survey that was completed by 606 companies around the world in 16 industries (most organizations came from a corporate group had more than $1 billion in annual revenue). We also engaged in in-depth interviews with six enterprises to dive well below the surface of these issues. Executives at a large bank in Australia, a leading educational assessment testing company, a large technology manufacturer, an online media company, a $5 billion consumer products company, and a major telco talked to us about their cloud activities.

We wanted to shed light on the extent to which large enterprises had adopted cloud applications and their cloud plans in the next two years. Has enterprise adoption of cloud reached an inflection point? What business applications have companies shifted from on-premises technology to the cloud? And what new opportunities is cloud opening up for IT functions that may view their role as “keeping the lights on” – of running data centers? Do they see opportunities from the cloud to create new value to their organizations?

 

What We Thought We’d Find

Going into the study, TCS viewed cloud computing as critical piece of a big, emerging puzzle: how companies can use it as a platform in combination with other technologies to create great experiences for customers who increasingly do their shopping on the mobile devices they carry in their pockets, backpacks and purses.  We saw cloud computing as a key building block for bringing the “digital consumer” to life – as important as social media, mobile technology (and apps) and “big data.”  We believe cloud makes it possible for companies to experiment with high-potential new online marketing, sales, customer service and other business processes, as well as promising new online products – all without having to make huge, fixed-cost technology investments. But were companies around the world viewing cloud applications the same way – as a tool to dramatically scale up their operations at variable costs, especially in emerging markets that had yet to prove out?

So what did we learn from our research? Our key takeaway is that as lofty as our vision may be for the long-term impact of cloud computing, we have, in fact, underestimated its potential. The research is moving us to believe that by 2020, when executives at large global companies reflect back on the major trends that shaped their businesses this decade, they will see cloud computing as one of the biggest.

The net of our findings is this: Cloud applications are an already-substantial piece of the large corporate IT infrastructure, one that is having significant impacts and is viewed to be even more important going forward. The views and activities of the companies that we surveyed and interviewed suggest there is no turning back from the cloud. The early benefits achieved are too substantial to revert to days of yore, when companies hosted all their application software on computers in their data centers and on their employees’ digital devices.

 

The Findings: We’ve Reached an Inflection Point with Cloud Applications

Every calculus lover knows that the inflection point on a curve is the place at which the curvature changes. The term “strategic inflection point” connotes a major change in the market – a point on which companies must change their offerings and/or the way they do business in order to keep up with the market.  So is cloud computing at an inflection point – the moment in which companies have embraced it as a critical technology strategy? Our study tells us the answer is a strong yes.

We asked IT executives what percent of their total applications were cloud applications. The answer: an average 12% in European firms, 19% in U.S. firms, 28% in Asia-Pacific firms and a surprising 39% in Latin American firms. In light of that, saying cloud applications have gained a toehold in large enterprises would be a gross understatement. (See Exhibit 1.)

What’s more, these same companies projected those percentages to grow significantly by 2014. For example, in European companies cloud applications are projected to double to becoming 24% of all applications. U.S. firms see cloud applications being about a third (34%) of total applications by then, when Asia-Pacific companies project them to be a full half of all their applications and Latin American companies see them becoming 56% of total applications. That’s quite a change from the last 30 years, when the vast majority of companies ran their applications from computers located on their premises.


Why Companies are Rushing to the Cloud, and the Returns They’re Getting

Why are companies embracing the cloud? Among U.S. and Asia-Pacific companies, the most important driver is not the one that many think it would be (to reduce technology costs). To be sure, cutting IT costs is a big driver. But more important was the need to standardize applications and the business operations those applications support – a critical need in an increasing number of global companies that want to establish common policies and procedures in the ways they hire people, take orders, serve customers, manage the books, and conduct other critical business activities. A major telco that we spoke to said standard cloud applications are helping business units cut IT costs and reduce its data center footprint.

Another big driver of cloud applications (especially in the U.S. and Asia-Pacific) was increasing the flexibility of applications – the ability to ramp up or down applications quickly. Online media firms are using the cloud to respond to huge variations in the demand for online services by online customers. One online media firm last year implemented its first private cloud in a new data center. It can get a new server running in minutes vs. the 6-12 weeks it took a decade ago. That’s critical when in a business where online viewers can increase in the millions from day to day or week to week.

The need to process “big data” – huge volumes of transactional and other digitized data – is also a big driver of cloud applications. About two-thirds of the U.S. companies surveyed said improving the way they gathered and analyzed data was a key factor in shifting to cloud applications.

Perhaps the most important piece of evidence that companies will embrace cloud applications in a big way is the value they have achieved to date from such applications. By shifting on-premises applications to the cloud, the companies we surveyed reduced their IT costs an average 31% in U.S. firms and 28% in European companies. (See Exhibit 2.) To us, this is not surprising. Such savings come from such sources as the ability to purchase network capacity and storage far less expensively, locate data centers in areas with lower post costs, and institute more highly automated data centers. By using public clouds (Internet services provided from data centers that host many companies’ applications), companies are able to tap into powerful application software that would have been cost-prohibitive for many.

But cost reduction is by no means the only benefit companies had generated from cloud applications.  Those that launched whole new applications in the cloud — applications that might have been economically infeasible had they required costly new computer hardware — reported 13% (U.S.) to 32% (Latin America) average revenue gains from their new, cloud-based products and services. Whether they are replacing on-premises applications or representing whole new applications, the cloud is generating substantial business value in many companies.

To examine the impact of cloud applications up close, we interviewed executives at six companies who shared their cloud experiences. As an example of the cost-reduction potential of cloud, the previously mentioned telecommunications firm moved all HR applications to the cloud last year, standardizing on enterprise software packages. The company believes cloud applications hosted in its own data centers (so-called “private clouds,” which would eventually house 80% of its applications) could cut IT costs by $100 million to $200 million annually and its number of data centers 80%. Another example is a large financial institution based in Sydney, which reduced its cost of computer storage 40% by putting applications in the cloud.

But those stories just speak to the cost benefits of cloud applications. The companies we surveyed and interviewed said the business process improvement and revenue benefits were even more important. After beginning to shift on-premises applications to the cloud in 2007, the previously mentioned bank in Australia has been using the cost savings from the cloud to develop new banking services  – apps that present offers on financial products to customers in real time – particularly on mobile devices, for instance.

Another example of a company that sees cloud applications to be critical to developing new products is one of the three largest U.S. suppliers of school assessment tests. The company has been shifting assessment testing of U.S. K-12 students from paper to online. Because many states are expected to require online assessment tests this decade, the company is experimenting with cloud-based solutions. It envisions having to deliver and score more than 40 million tests in a two-week period by 2014. The cost of building the technology infrastructure for such a short time would be enormous. That’s why the company is all over the cloud.

Companies have big plans to shift many more applications across all their business functions to the cloud over the next two years, particularly in customer-facing business processes of marketing, sales and customer service.  Firms like the technology manufacturer that we interviewed are using cloud systems aggressively in their marketing campaigns, starting with online games (so-called gamification applications) that appeal to customers.


Certain Industries are in the Lead

Our survey found four industries have been much more aggressive in adopting cloud applications (in public or private clouds) than other industries. We asked companies to tell us how many cloud applications they were using in 10 core business functions: marketing, sales, R&D, manufacturing/operations, HR, finance, customer service, legal, distribution and procurement. At the top of the list were the computer/electronics, financial services, industrial manufacturing and telecom services industries (averaging with more than six cloud applications per function). At the bottom were healthcare services and chemicals companies, averaging less than four cloud applications per business function. (See Exhibit 3.)

Yet despite the strong embrace of the cloud in many industries, most companies have remained somewhat conservative about what systems and data they put in public clouds – in the data centers of third parties that host many companies’ applications and IT infrastructure. While our survey found that the majority of U.S., Asia-Pacific and Latin American companies would consider putting their core applications in private clouds, only a minority today would put core applications in public clouds. The reason is fear of data security and privacy. The companies we surveyed in all four regions said their biggest challenge to leveraging the cloud is overcoming their concerns about IT security.

Thus the challenge for companies and cloud vendors like TCS is clear: to greatly reduce the fear that most large companies have about putting mission-critical information systems and sensitive data in public clouds. Large companies now want to shift many applications to the cloud, and they realize that if they are to get the greatest cost savings, it will have to be to public clouds (where cloud vendors can spread their costs across hundreds or thousands of customers). But customers will need to be sold on cloud vendors’ information security promises. That will require bringing industrial-strength practices to information security and maintaining systems availability. All this will separate the cloud-proficient vendors from the cloud pretenders.

Stories like these, and the responses of the 600+ companies that we surveyed, show that the cloud is beginning to have a profound impact on a number of industries. The benefits we’ve uncovered should remind business and IT executives that where there is smoke, there is fire. As an increasing number of companies publicly discuss the benefits of cloud computing, we expect many more enterprises will rush to adopt cloud applications in every facet of their business.

Now is the time for business and IT executives to look strongly at the cloud – both private clouds dedicated to the needs of one company or public clouds in which multiple companies can be served. Our research shows that companies have moved beyond the inflection point. The next few years will be ones in which market leaders are companies who quickly capitalized on the cloud.

Key Success Factors in Capitalizing on the Cloud

The keys to adopting and benefiting from cloud applications are overcoming fear of security risks and skepticism about ROI.


  • Comparing responses by region of world

Any technology that is as hyped as much as the cloud (remember adulation over artificial intelligence, client-server computing, and the Web in its early years?) generates an almost equal amount of skepticism from those who have seen numerous tech evangelists over time. Cloud computing, too, has drawn its fair share of unabashed advocates and hard-bitten skeptics.

And so when we asked our 606 survey respondents around the world to rate the key success factors in generating benefits from the cloud from a list we provided, the most highly rated success factors were overcoming two fundamental fears about cloud computing (see Exhibit X-1):

  • That cloud is a highly risky technology from a data security standpoint.  Overcoming this fear was rated the most important factor in generating benefits from cloud in every region. In other words, they seem to be indicating to us, the benefits are there – one just has to make sure that the pursuit of those benefits is a safe pursuit.
  • That the benefits of cloud are a mirage.  The second most important success factor in US, Asia-Pacific and Latin American companies was demonstrating returns on cloud investments earlier in the process. For European companies, the third most important success factor was quantifying the potential benefits of cloud upfront. (It was tied for first in importance in Latin America.) Both issues point to the skepticism over whether cloud computing can deliver on the benefits that have been bandied about everywhere – saving big technology costs, standardizing the ways a company does business around the world, and much, much more.

In the U.S., near the bottom of the list of success factors were two that we thought would carry more weight before we fielded the survey: getting the CEO or head of a business function to drive a cloud initiative rather than the IT organization, and overcoming the IT function’s fear of a diminished organizational role from the adoption of public clouds – i.e., from shifting in-house applications to a cloud vendor’s data center. (See Exhibit X-2 below.)

 


TCS Cloud Study – 10 Key Findings
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Differences in Cloud Benefits by Region of World

The most aggressive adopters of cloud applications are companies in Asia-Pacific and Latin America. They report having much higher percentages of cloud apps to total apps – and bigger results from cloud apps than their peers in the U.S. and Europe.


  • Contrasting US, European, Asia-Pacific and Latin American companies in cloud benefits achieved to date

Many articles have been published over the last decade about how emerging economies in Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia-Pacific have leapt ahead of the advanced economies in their telecommunications networks. By establishing cellular networks rather than continuing to invest in traditional wire-and-telephone-pole landline networks, these emerging economies have built telecommunications systems that offer higher-speed networks for mobile phones. That, in turn, means their mobile phones can do a lot more bandwidth-intensive tasks than the telecommunications networks of advanced economies: television on demand, payments through mobile phones, and the like. Cellular networks have, in effect, enabled many emerging economies to leap ahead of their more advanced counterparts.

The findings of this study suggest that a similar phenomenon may be happening with cloud technology.  The companies we surveyed in Latin America and Asia-Pacific were much more aggressive adopters of cloud (as measured by the percentage of total applications that were cloud applications) than were US and European companies.

Are smaller Latin American companies leading the way on cloud? On the contrary: In companies of less than $1B in revenue, 36% of their total applications software is in the cloud. At companies of greater than $1B in revenue, 42% of their applications are cloud applications. Large Latin American companies appear to be leading the way in the cloud.

Greater Usage of Cloud Means Greater Benefits

The companies we surveyed in Latin America and Asia Pacific were also bigger beneficiaries of cloud – they reported generating much larger average benefits. This was true for both applications they shifted from on-premises computers to the cloud, as well as for entirely new applications they placed in the cloud. Latin American companies in particular reported much larger benefits from shifting on-premises applications to the cloud in the seven metrics that we used – improvements that were in the range of 50%-60% vs. the largely 30% range of improvements for U.S. and European companies.

For the six metrics that we tracked in benefits from launching entirely new cloud applications, Latin American companies, too, far exceeded their peers in the U.S. and Europe. Latin American companies reported improvements in the 20%-30% range vs. in the teens for U.S. and European companies.

Perhaps Latin American and Asia-Pacific companies see the cloud as a way to technologically leap ahead of their counterparts in the U.S. and Europe, many of which are saddled with aging IT infrastructures that are not so easily or quickly moved to the cloud.

 


TCS Cloud Study – 10 Key Findings
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The Benefits That Companies Have Gained from Cloud Applications

The early returns on cloud applications are impressive. Companies using cloud applications are increasing the number of standard applications and business processes, reducing cycle times to ramp up IT resources, cutting IT costs, and launching a greater number of new products and processes. The story of a major telco shows the ambitions of the some of the most aggressive cloud adopters.


  • Operational and financial improvements from shifting on-premises applications to the cloud
  • Operational and financial improvements from launching new applications in the cloud
  • Case study: AOL Inc.
  • Case study: Major telco

We asked the companies we surveyed whether their use of cloud applications had generated benefits – both cloud applications that they shifted from on-premises computers, as well as whole new cloud applications for which they previously had no on-premises versions. For both types of cloud applications, their answers indicate that cloud applications are generating significant improvements in operational and financial performance.

Benefits from Shifting Existing Apps to the Cloud

In all four regions of the world, the average benefits from cloud applications of this type were impressive, especially in Latin American and Asia-Pacific companies:

  • In IT costs, 28% (Europe) to 55% (Latin America) average reductions
  • In standard applications and business processes, between 34% (Europe) and 60% (Latin America) increases in the number of apps and business processes that have been made common across a company or business
  • In cycle-time reductions to ramp IT resources up or down (a measure of “flexibility”): between 35% (U.S.) and 64% (Latin America) reductions
  • In systems downtime, 33% (Europe) to 59% (Latin America) reductions
  • In the time it takes to enhance applications, 37% (U.S. and Europe) to 57% (Latin America) reductions
  • Application fixes, from 35% (U.S.) to 64% (Latin America) reductions in the number of patches
  • In analytic reports, from 34% (Europe) to 66% (Latin America) increases in the number of reports, which gives companies greater ability to mine and analyze volumes of data

The more aggressive adopters of cloud computing – Latin American and Asia-Pacific companies (which had higher percentages of cloud apps to total corporate apps) – also reported much greater benefits from their cloud apps. Why is this the case? Perhaps greater benefits is a function of experience; the more you use cloud applications, the more knowledge you gain about how to deploy and use them, and thus the greater likelihood to generate benefits. Or it could be that using a higher number of cloud applications simply brings more cumulative benefits.

For a $5 billion consumer products company, the cloud enabled one of its business functions to implement a new application without needing the typical “$10 million and 18 months to build it,” says an IT executive in the company. And the aforementioned telco hopes that standardizing applications through its private cloud data centers will help it reduce the number of those centers by 80% and save as much as $200 million in annual IT costs.

Companies Report Sizable Benefits from Launching Whole New Apps in the Cloud

We also asked survey respondents to report on benefits received to date from new applications that they launched in the cloud. Specifically, we had them indicate improvements in six areas:

  • Testing of new business processes that they would have considered too costly to test prior to the advent of the cloud (because of excessive technology costs). Here we asked them to indicate the percentage increase in new business processes tested.
  • The number of new business processes they actually launched or instituted
  • The number of new products/services they tested
  • The number of new products/services they launched
  • The annual revenue increase from launching new products/services in markets that they already served
  • The average reduction in the time it took to enter new markets with new products/services

While the average percentage improvements in these areas were about half those that companies reported from shifting on-premises applications to the cloud, they were nonetheless noteworthy:

  • Increases from 15% to 19% in the number of new business processes tested and launched in U.S., Europe and Asia-Pacific companies. Latin American companies, however, reported higher average numbers (22-27%)
  • Increases from 13% to 19% in the number of new products or services tested and launched by companies in the U.S., Europe and Asia-Pacific (which, again, trailed the 31-32% increases in new products/services in Latin America)
  • An average 14-17% reduction in cycle time to enter new markets with new products/services in the U.S., Europe and Asia-Pacific (bested again by Latin American companies, which claimed an average 35% cycle time reduction)
  • Average revenue increases of 13-17% from launching new, cloud-based products and services in existing markets (vs. an average 32% revenue increase reported by Latin American companies)

At AOL, a Private Cloud is Helping the Shift to a Web Advertising Model

Three decades ago AOL Inc. was a trailblazer in opening the online world to the American public. Today, despite competition from Facebook, Google, Yahoo and many other sites, AOL remains the sixth most heavily visited U.S. Website, with 106 million unique visitors in November 2011.[1] The $2.4 billion company will be 30 years old next year, an unusual lifespan in an industry that buried AltaVista, Boo.com, Pets.com and many other online companies long ago.

AOL outlasted them all because of its ability to shift strategies quickly and capably as the Web created new capabilities and competitors. The company has reincarnated itself several times – from proprietary online service in the early 1990s (supported by subscription fees) to Internet access provider in the late 1990s and 2000s (dial-up access fees) to online media content provider today (funded by advertising). In just the last five years, the company’s revenue mix has changed from about 43% advertising/54% subscription to 60% advertising/40% subscription and other.1

 

But because of its long history of providing online services such as email, instant messaging and Web media and entertainment content, AOL had accumulated a vast amount of computers, storage, other computing devices and software over that time, says Michael Manos, senior vice president of technologies at AOL. He has a playful name for this technology tangle: “cruft.” These legacy systems can weigh down companies that must continually adopt new web technologies while keeping IT infrastructure costs low. This is especially the case at AOL, whose strategy today requires focusing investments on online content and the people who produce it.

“Cruft adds tremendous complexity to a company’s technology operations and makes it difficult for it to be agile,” Manos explains.

To reduce its IT costs, AOL has embraced a private cloud infrastructure over the last year. It has dramatically lowered the technology expenses of sales, marketing and customer service. Manos estimated that 20% of the company’s business applications have moved to cloud in the last six months, and that another 15% will shift by mid-year.

That’s crucial in a company whose subscriber revenue has been falling sharply over the years. A decade ago, AOL had about 30 million subscribers. Today, the number is around 4 million. In 2011, the company reduced total expenses more than $500 million to make up for the decline in subscription revenue.1

Adopting a Private Cloud at Light Speed

Manos joined AOL in January 2011 after 17 years of managing data centers for such media and technology icons as Walt Disney Co., Microsoft, and Nokia. He had earned a solid track record in making data centers more effective and efficient.

In just 90 days, Manos and his team implemented AOL’s first-ever private cloud in a new data center the company calls ATC. (AOL operates three other data centers in the U.S. – two in Virginia and one in Silicon Valley.1) Since going live last Oct. 1, ATC and the private cloud have enabled AOL to shut down about 10,000 computer servers at its other computer facilities. Furthermore, AOL’s private cloud can more quickly increase the firm’s computing capacity on demand, without the need for additional manpower. Such “dynamic scalability” is essential in a business like AOL, where breaking news such as election results generates huge spikes in viewers clicking on its websites.

Because of its private cloud, AOL can now get a new server up and running in just minutes, compared to 6-12 weeks a decade ago.1 In fact, on the ATC data center’s first day of operation, it took only an hour to have nearly 100 virtual servers running. Manos says provisioning a new server now takes only about 5 minutes via the cloud, compared to the 8-12 hours it previously took. “We now can spin up capacity extremely quickly,” he says. “More importantly, we can spin down capacity very quickly.  So it’s given us a substantial amount of agility within our business that we’ve never had before.” The cloud has also reduced energy costs. The more efficient servers at ATC (about 800 in all) have replaced 3,000 old servers, paring AOL’s electricity bill by about $700,000 a year.

Biggest Barrier to Embracing the Cloud: IT People

Manos says the biggest barrier to adopting cloud technology at AOL is that IT employees worry that cloud technology will replace them. However, companies like AOL have no choice but to reduce costs in technology and other realms. ATC is a 100% “lights-out” facility, meaning it doesn’t need anyone operating the machines on its premises. Manos’ team of five people can now manage 12,000-15,000 servers that are spread across the company’s data centers. Still, the main objective is not to eliminate IT staff but rather to deploy them in jobs where they can play a more important role.

Manos has gained support for cloud computing throughout AOL, from the CEO down. Through regular emails, newsletters and meetings, CEO Tim Armstrong has gone to great lengths to make the transition transparent. Armstrong has become a big proponent of the firm’s private cloud because of the cost savings and ability to launch new Web content more quickly.

“If you would have told me nine months ago that the CEO would be talking about the technology side of the business, I would have said you were crazy,” Manos says. “But he is now saying that AOL is a technology company as well as a media company.”

Major Telco: Cloud as Game-Changer and Data Center Consolidator

This company sees cloud as a major external and internal opportunity — to sell new services to customers and induce large reductions in its technology costs as well as standardized business processes and applications software.

Top management at the telco believes that if the company wishes to get numerous customers to adopt cloud services, it must demonstrate how it has benefited from using the cloud internally. With that mandate, the company in the last two years has moved financial systems such as general ledger, payables and fixed assets to its private cloud. It is also moving human resource applications to the cloud (including the corporate email system, and employee savings and financial plans). Customer records ordering and processing will move to cloud as well. All in all, the company has moved 30% of its applications to its private clouds (data centers that it owns and operates), a number it hopes will reach 80% by year-end.

The company is moving to organize its IT architecture completely around its private clouds, with the intention of eventually putting all applications in the cloud and providing cloud services for each company business unit. Today, its business units have their own financial, HR, customer management and other systems. That, of course, results in large duplications of software, hardware and data center space that could be consolidated if business units could standardize on many fewer applications and let them run on hardware at fewer but centrally managed data centers.

If the firm can achieve this, it believes it will reduce the need for dozens of data centers (reducing the number by as much as 80%), which would achieve cost savings in the range of $100 million to $200 million.

What must the company do to reach such ambitious goals? The two biggest obstacles that we heard were “fear of the unknown” and “fear of losing control” – both coming especially from the IT functions within the company’s business units.

That said, the company believes the issue is no longer whether the company will broadly adopt cloud computing but rather how quickly it will do so. “We believe cloud is something that is going to be gaming-changing,” says one executive. “It’s going to become a way of life. I think we’re at the very beginning of this, and that many companies have a ‘toe in the water’ approach because of the security concerns.” The gating factor, he believes, is whether cloud vendors can provide a highly secure service with nearly 100% uptime.

 


TCS Cloud Study – 10 Key Findings
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